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Some remarks on Duʿāʾ Kumayl (part 5)
wa-khaḍaʿa lahā kullu shayʾin
[I beseech you by your strength, by which you prevail over all things] and before which all things are subdued
In the previous clause, the supplicant beseeched God by his strength, by which God prevails over all things. Consequently, everything in existence is subdued before God’s strength, but there is a difference between the two clauses. When we say God’s strength prevails over something, it does not mean that thing is subdued before God; all it means is that the thing is under God’s control. But when we say everything is subdued before God’s power, it means everything in existence submits to God’s strength and is humbled before it.
wa-dhalla lahā kullu shayʾin
and to which all things submit
The word “dhalla,” translated here as submit, has two meanings. In one sense, it means to obey or to submit, in which case the supplicant is saying I beseech you by your strength, to which everything submits. In another sense, it is the opposite of might, power, honor, and glory. In this sense, the supplicant is saying I beseech you by your strength in the face of which everything is insignificant, lowly, negligible, humbled, and abased.